Flowers: Arranged in panicles, single floret and generally purple or purple-brown in color, spikelets are clustered into inflorescences.
Fruit and seeds: Fruits are caryopses.
Habitat: Native to Europe, Asia; grows in loamy, sandy or pebbly soil, clay, moist soils.
Reproduction: Vegetatively through rhizomes, stolons or caespitose.
Monitoring and rapid response: Monitor wetlands, ditches and moist sites, particularly adjacent to areas which receive nutrient rich run-off or road salt. Burning, mowing, discing and digging may stimulate populations. Foliar herbicide treatment in late summer or fall provides effective control for large dense areas.
Credits: The information provided in this factsheet was gathered from the Hortipedia plant database.
Individual species images that appear with a number in a black box are courtesy of the Bugwood.org network (http://www.invasive.org).Individual photo author credits may not be included due to the small display size of the images and subsequent difficulty of reading the provided text. All other images appear courtesy of Google (http://images.google.com).